In 1893, he joined the Polish Socialist Party (PPS)[12], and helped organize their Lithuanian branch. W kampanii wyborczej wykorzystano nawet… wózki używane przez ulicznych sprzedawców owoców i warzyw, na których umieszczano szyldy z nr 1. [177] While many saw Rydz-Śmigły as a successor to Piłsudski, he never became as influential. He was baptised Roman Catholic on 15 December 1867 in the church of Powiewiórka (then Sventsiany deanery) by the priest, Thomas Valinsky. [101] The treaty and his secret approval of General Lucjan Żeligowski's capture of Vilnius from the Lithuanians marked an end to this incarnation of Piłsudski's federalist Intermarium plan. On 22 November he officially received, from the new government of Jędrzej Moraczewski, the title of Provisional Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa) of renascent Poland.[12]. [2][3][4][5][excessive citations]. [21][22], Józef received a milder sentence: five years' exile in Siberia, first at Kirensk on the Lena River, then at Tunka. [42], Unlike the National Democrats, Piłsudski instructed the PPS to boycott the elections to the First Duma. [55], Soon afterward he officially established the Polish Legions, taking personal command of their First Brigade,[12] which he would lead successfully into several victorious battles. [20] Piłsudski's arrest greatly enhanced his reputation among Poles, many of whom began to see him as the most determined Polish leader, who was willing to take on all the partitioning powers. [58], Piłsudski became increasingly disillusioned with democracy in Poland. In early 1905 he ordered the PPS to launch a general strike there; it involved some 400,000 workers and lasted two months until it was broken by the Russian authorities. Józef Piłsudski w czasie służby w Legionach, ok. 1916 roku (domena publiczna). Maria miała pokazywać się na mieście raz z jednym, a raz z drugim. Assisted by his protégé, Foreign Minister Józef Beck, he sought support for Poland in alliances with western powers, such as France and Britain, and with friendly neighbors such as Romania and Hungary.[146]. Piłsudski called the treaty an "act of cowardice". [20] His goals were to stabilize the country; reduce the influence of political parties, which he blamed for corruption and inefficiency; and strengthen the army. At the same time, an army under General Władysław Sikorski was to strike north from outside Warsaw, cutting off Soviet forces that sought to envelope the Polish capital from that direction. [43] The ZWC's main purpose was to train officers and noncommissioned officers for a future Polish Army. [12][172], The 1937 relocation of his remains, made by his long-standing adversary Adam Sapieha, then Archbishop of Krakow, incited widespread protests that included calls for Sapieha's removal. [20], On 8 November 1918, three days before the Armistice, Piłsudski and his colleague, Colonel Kazimierz Sosnkowski, were released by the Germans from Magdeburg and soon, like Vladimir Lenin before them, placed on a private train, bound for their national capital, as the collapsing Germans hoped that Piłsudski would create a force that was friendly to them. [12] He was rejected by the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), whose authorities had been informed of his political affiliation. [105], For Piłsudski, that was a major shock, which shook his belief that Poland could function as a democracy[106] and made him support government by a strong hand. However, the Sejm re-instated his office in the Little Constitution of 1919. In 1937, after a two-year display at St. Leonard's Crypt in Kraków's Wawel Cathedral, Piłsudski's body was laid to rest in the Cathedral's Crypt under the Silver Bells, except for his brain, which he had willed for study to Stefan Batory University, and his heart, which was interred in his mother's grave at Vilnius' Rasos Cemetery, where it remains. [23] There, he took part in what the authorities viewed as a revolt. [2], Condolences were expressed by the clergy, including primate of Poland August Hlond, as well as by Pope Pius XI, who called himself a "personal friend" of Piłsudski. [27] Local officials decided, as a Polish noble, he was not entitled to the 10-ruble pension received by most other exiles. [32], Piłsudski and the first Polish government were distrusted in the West because he had co-operated with the Central Powers in 1914 to 1917 and because the governments of Daszyński and Jędrzej Moraczewski were primarily socialist. [157], After Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in January 1933, Piłsudski is rumored to have proposed to France a preventive war against Germany. Another of his old friends, Ignacy Mościcki, was elected in his stead. Various Polish military organizations and provisional governments (the Regency Council in Warsaw; Ignacy Daszyński's government in Lublin; and the Polish Liquidation Committee in Kraków) bowed to Piłsudski, who set about forming a new coalition government. This began to change, however, particularly after de-Stalinization and the Polish October (1956), and historiography in Poland gradually moved away from a purely negative view of Piłsudski toward a more balanced and neutral assessment. However, the new government, pursuant to the Lanckorona Pact, an alliance among the centrist PSL Piast and the right-wing Popular National Union and Christian Democrat parties, contained right-wing enemies of Piłsudski, people he held responsible for Narutowicz's death and with whom he found it impossible to work. March upon Vilnius, Minsk, Warsaw! Hyperinflation fueled public unrest, and the government was unable to find a quick solution to the mounting unemployment and economic crisis. The printing press of "Robotnik" was in their apartment first in Wilno, then in Łódź. Zmarł 83 lata temu (dane: maj 2019). [54] On 12 August 1914, Piłsudski's forces took the town of Kielce, of Kielce Governorate, but Piłsudski found the residents less supportive than he had expected. In 1919–21 he commanded Polish forces in six border wars that re-defined the country's borders. A junior member of the French military mission, Charles de Gaulle, adapted some lessons from the Polish-Soviet War as well as from Piłsudski's career. [125][126][133][134] The years 1926 to 1935 and Piłsudski himself were favorably viewed by many Polish Jews whose situation improved especially under Piłsudski-appointed Prime Minister Kazimierz Bartel. After one of the inmates had insulted a guard and refused to apologize, he and other political prisoners were beaten by the guards for their defiance;[24] Piłsudski lost two teeth and took part in a subsequent hunger strike until the authorities reinstated political prisoners' privileges that had been suspended after the incident. Although based on reliable intelligence, including decrypted Soviet radio communications, the plan was termed "amateurish" by high-ranking army officers and military experts, quick to point out Piłsudski's lack of formal military education. [31] Initially, he sided with the Socialists' more radical wing, but despite the socialist movement's ostensible internationalism, he remained a Polish nationalist. Józef Piłsudski był dwukrotnie premierem (1926-28 i 1930), był pierwszym marszałkiem Polski (1920) oraz Naczelnikiem w latach 1918-22. Człowieka, który całe życie poświęcił walce o wolną Ojczyznę. [12][20], When the Chjeno-Piast coalition, which Piłsudski had strongly criticized, formed a new government,[20] on 12–14 May 1926, Piłsudski returned to power in a coup d'état (the May Coup), supported by the Polish Socialist Party, Liberation, the Peasant Party and even the Polish Communist Party. [90] As Norman Davies noted, at that time, especially abroad, "Piłsudski had nothing of his later prestige. [86] Soviet commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky's order of the day for 2 July 1920 read: "To the West! [25], During his years of exile in Siberia, Piłsudski met many Sybiraks, including Bronisław Szwarce, who almost become a leader of the January 1863 Uprising. As of 2020, they village is in Lithuania. The plan next required two armies under General Józef Haller, facing Soviet frontal attack on Warsaw from the east, to hold their entrenched positions at all costs. [43] In the end, the Japanese offered Piłsudski much less than he hoped; he received Japan's help in purchasing weapons and ammunition for the PPS and their combat organisation, and the Japanese declined the Legion proposal. Dla zwiedzających . As a young man, he belonged to underground organizations and used various pseudonyms, including "Wiktor", "Mieczysław" and "Ziuk" (the latter also being his family nickname). Józef Piłsudski karmi Kasztankę. In February 1900, after Russian authorities found Robotnik's underground printing press in Łódź, Piłsudski was imprisoned at the Warsaw Citadel. Źródło: "IKC" 1926 / Domena Publiczna Nagranie Józefa Piłsudskiego z roku 1924. He gave Poland freedom, boundaries, power and respect. Józef Piłsudski 25 sierpnia 2012 roku, godz. [111] There, he settled down to supporting his family by writing a series of political and military memoirs, including Rok 1920 (The Year 1920). [49] Piłsudski enjoyed extreme respect and loyalty from his men,[49] which would remain for years to come. [47], In 1908, Piłsudski transformed his paramilitary units into an "Association for Active Struggle" (Związek Walki Czynnej, or ZWC), headed by three of his associates, Władysław Sikorski, Marian Kukiel and Kazimierz Sosnkowski. moj tatko walczyl w legionach pilsudskiego w pierwszej wojnie do wojska byl powolany majac 17 lat wojne przezyl ale po drugiej wojnie byl z tego powodu szykanowany ze walczyl przeciw bolszewickiej rosj, co na pisac 5 informacji o jozefie pilsudskim, lolololololololololololololololololololololololololololololololololololololo, ddddddddddupa zapłon dup dup dup pa pa pa, jest rok 2020 i jest team XD2 Poniewaz team X1 sie rozpad, Adres e-mail (nie zostanie opublikowany) (wymagane). Prawdą za to jest fakt, że w gimnazjum żeńskim im. [132], During the 1930s, a combination of developments, from the Great Depression[125] to the vicious spiral of OUN terrorist attacks and government pacifications, caused government relations with the national minorities to deteriorate. Russian law also protected a wife from prosecution for the illegal activities of her husband. In August 1920 all were in agreement that his catastrophic career will be crowned with the fall of Warsaw". Nawet jako Generalny Inspektor Sił Zbrojnych (1928-1935) nie zasnął, dopóki na stoliku obok łóżka nie spoczął naładowany rewolwer, nie ruszał się też poza Belweder bez broni. [11], On the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), in the summer of 1904, Piłsudski traveled to Tokyo, Japan, where he tried unsuccessfully to obtain that country's assistance for an uprising in Poland. [64] Articles 87–93 of the Treaty of Versailles[65] and the Little Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919, formally established Poland as an independent and sovereign state in the international arena. T. XIX. Józef Klemens Piłsudski – polityk, działacz niepodległościowy, Naczelnik Państwa Polskiego (1918–1922), Wódz Naczelny Wojska Polskiego (1918), pierwszy Marszałek Polski (1920), premier Polski (1926–1928, 1930). W kondukcie żałobnym podążającym ulicami Krakowa dwaj oficerowie prowadzili klacz wydaną na świat przez Kasztankę – Merę, była ona przykryta kirem. [163], Pilsudski later returned to the Catholic Church to marry Aleksandra Szczerbińska . Eastern Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Protestant, Jewish, and Islamic organizations expressed condolences, praising Piłsudski for his policies of religious tolerance. He also served as General Inspector of the Armed Forces, and Chairman of The War Council. A supporter of the Franco-Polish Military Alliance and the Polish-Romanian Alliance, part of the Little Entente, Piłsudski was disappointed by the policy of appeasement pursued by the French and British governments, evident in their signing of the Locarno Treaties. ^ Piłsudski sometimes spoke of being a Lithuanian of Polish culture. [28] During the exile, he participated in a prisoner mutiny and two of his front teeth were knocked off when he was hit by the back of a gun – missing teeth is the reason for his characteristic, bushy mustache. Zostaw własny komentarz. Virtually every Polish city has its "Piłsudski Street". I only ask that you not make me out to be a 'whiner and sentimentalist. Troubles followed repressions in the largely-Ukrainian eastern Galicia, where nearly 1,800 persons were arrested. W wyniku pośredniego udziału w przygotowaniu spisku na życie cara Aleksandra III został skazany na zesłanie na Syberię na okres 5 lat. We have to know from which stool we will tumble first, and when that will be". a. After General Stanisław Szeptycki proposed the military should be supervised by civilians, Piłsudski criticized that as an attempt to politicize the army, and on 28 June, he resigned his last political appointment. Before that, it was in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, an integral part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. ', On 13 May 1935, in accordance with Piłsudski's last wishes, Edward Rydz-Śmigły was named by Poland's president and government to be Inspector-General of the Polish Armed Forces, and on 10 November 1936, he was elevated to Marshal of Poland. He backed that demand with his own proffered resignation and that of many of the Legions' officers. [143][144], Piłsudski's Promethean programme to weaken the Soviet Union, by supporting nationalist independence movements of major non-Russian peoples dwelling in the Soviet Union, was co-ordinated from 1927 to the 1939 outbreak of World War II in Europe by the military intelligence officer, Edmund Charaszkiewicz. Piłsudski, however, was a staunch advocate of continuing the fight. On that very day, which would become Poland's Independence Day, he proclaimed an independent Polish state. [38] The marriage deteriorated after, several years later, Piłsudski began an affair with a younger socialist,[32] Aleksandra Szczerbińska. [92] Later, some supporters of Piłsudski would seek to portray him as the sole author of the Polish strategy, but opponents would seek to minimize his role. [199], Piłsudski has been a character in numerous works of fiction, such as the 1922 novel Generał Barcz (General Barcz) by Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski and the 2007 novel Ice (Lód) by Jacek Dukaj. [32] In 1894, as its chief editor, he published an underground socialist newspaper, Robotnik (The Worker); he would also be one of its chief writers, and, initially, a typesetter. [29][30], In 1892, Piłsudski returned from exile, and settled in Adomavas Manor near Teneniai (now in Šilalė district). The service included a symbolic coffin with a Polish flag and eagle. Szachmajerowej na warszawskiej Ochocie instruktorką Wojskowego Przysposobienia Kobiet córek Piłsudskiego była Dżennet Dżabagi, córka innego emigranta politycznego z Północnego Kaukazu. Both were very involved in the socialist and independence movements. Stopień marszałka nie był w rzeczywistości XX-wiecznej Polski nową godnością. [95][96], At the time, Piłsudski's plan was criticized, and only the desperate situation of the Polish forces persuaded other commanders to go along with it. Właśnie dzięki inicjatywie Piłsudskiego w 1927 r. dokonano ekshumacji prochów wieszcza, które wówczas spoczywały na paryskim cmentarzu Montmartre i przetransportowano je do Polski, by ostatecznie złożyć w krypcie królewskiej na Wawelu. In France and England he was considered a treasonous ally who leads Poland into destruction; in Russia he was seen as a false servant of the allies, who will lead imperialism to ruin. He is viewed as a father of the Second Polish Republic re-established in 1918, 123 years after the final Partition of Poland by Austria, Prussia and Russia Stan ten trwał trzy lata, aż w końcu wybrankiem okazał się być Józef. Jest to kolejne przekłamanie, gdyż obydwaj przebywali na Syberii w różnych latach. Wychowany w duchu patriotycznym dzieciństwo spędził w majątku Zułowie na Wileńszczyźnie, a następnie, po pogorszeniu się sytuacji majątkowej rodziców, w samym Wilnie. "[12] He declined to support any party and did not form any political organization of his own; instead, he advocated creating a coalition government. After a copy of the plan fell into Soviet hands, Western Front commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky thought it to be a ruse and disregarded it. Kasztankę – klacz maści kasztanowatej - otrzymał Piłsudski 9 sierpnia 1914 roku od Eustachego Romera, właściciela majątku Czaple Małe koło Miechowa. [102], After the Polish Constitution of March 1921 severely limited the powers of the presidency intentionally, to prevent a President Piłsudski from waging war. [20], The culmination of his dictatorial and supralegal policies came in the 1930s, with the imprisonment and trial of certain political opponents (the Brest trials) on the eve of the 1930 legislative elections and with the 1934 establishment of a prison for political prisoners at Bereza Kartuska (today Biaroza),[20] where some prisoners were brutally mistreated. [117], In internal politics, Piłsudski's coup entailed sweeping limitations on parliamentary government, as his Sanation regime (1926–1939), at times employing authoritarian methods, sought to "restore public life to moral health". [7] After World War I began in 1914, Piłsudski's Legions fought alongside Austria-Hungary against Russia. [90] On 19 July they failed to carry a vote of no-confidence in the council and this led to Dmowski's withdrawal from the Council. That offensive would separate the Soviet Western Front from its reserves and disorganize its movements. [7] By contrast, Roman Dmowski, Piłsudski's rival, believed the best way to achieve a unified and independent Poland was to support the Triple Entente against the Central Powers. [20], In 1910, two legal paramilitary organizations were created in the Austrian zone of Poland, one in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), and one in Kraków, to conduct training in military science. Potrawy na przedwojennej wigilii. [20], Piłsudski and his supporters in the Revolutionary Faction continued to plot a revolution against Tsarist Russia to secure Polish independence. [153] Critics of the two non-aggression pacts accursed Piłsudski of under-estimating Hitler's aggressiveness,[154] of giving Germany time to re-arm[155][156] and of allowing Stalin to eliminate his socialist opponents, primarily in Ukraine; they were supported by Piłsudski's Promethean program. Stanisław Wojciechowski of Polish People's Party "Piast" (PSL Piast), another of Piłsudski's old colleagues, was elected the new president, and Wincenty Witos, also of PSL Piast, became prime minister. His godparents were Joseph and Constance Martsinkovsky Ragalskaya. Under Piłsudski, Poland maintained good relations with neighboring Romania, Hungary and Latvia. Warszawa: 1939. [18] Along with his brothers Bronisław, Adam and Jan, Józef was introduced by his mother Maria, née Billewicz, to Polish history and literature, which were suppressed by the Russian authorities. Piłsudski, however, aware of the presidency's limited powers, refused the office. Imię (wymagane) Adres e-mail (nie zostanie opublikowany) (wymagane) Witryna. [71] According to historian George Sanford, it was around 1920 that Piłsudski came to realize the infeasibility of that version of his Intermarium project. 5 grudnia 1867 w Zułowie, zm. Po śmierci wykonano gipsowy odlew jego twarzy, a ciało zabalsamowano. [39][42] Dmowski, a Polish patriot, remained Piłsudski's political arch-enemy to the end of Piłsudski's life. [140] Others, however, contend, particularly from the late 1920s, he supported the development of these military branches. 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[190][191], Piłsudski has lent his name to several military units, including the 1st Legions Infantry Division and armored train No. [48] The take from that single raid (200,812 rubles) was a fortune for the time and equaled the paramilitaries' entire takes of the two preceding years. Józef Piłsudski, Listy do Jadwigi Burhardt z lat 1931–1934, BN rps nr akc. [63] He maintained a simple lifestyle, eating plain meals alone at an inexpensive restaurant. "[184], After World War II, little of Piłsudski's thought influenced the policies of the Polish People's Republic, a de facto satellite of the Soviet Union. From November 1918, when Poland regained its independence, until 1922, Piłsudski was Poland's Chief of State. Plac Saski, 31 maja 1926. There were nine legal systems, five currencies, and 66 types of rail systems (with 165 models of locomotives), each needing to be consolidated. [146], Piłsudski's religious views are a matter of debate. 1925 r. Fot. [citation needed] In 2020, Piłsudski's manor house in Sulejówek officially opened as a museum as part of the celebrations of the one hundredth anniversary of the Battle of Warsaw. In 1914, he predicted a new major war would defeat the Russian Empire and the Central Powers. Poniżej zebraliśmy ciekawostki z życia J. Piłsudskiego i mniej znane fakty. [178], As the Polish government became increasingly authoritarian and conservative, the Rydz-Śmigły faction was opposed by that of the more moderate Ignacy Mościcki, who remained President. "[43], At a meeting in Paris in 1914, Piłsudski presciently declared, in the impending war, for Poland to regain independence, Russia must be beaten by the Central Powers (the Austro-Hungarian and German Empires), and the latter powers must in their turn be beaten by France, Britain and the United States. Podziękowanie od autora: Bardzo dziękuję Bibliotece Narodowej za udostepnienie mikrofilmu w trudnych czasach pandemii. [96][99], In February 1921, Piłsudski visited Paris, where, in negotiations with French President Alexandre Millerand, he laid the foundations for the Franco-Polish Military Alliance, which would be signed later that year. Him as `` Joseph '', but this is not the common practice małe kompetencje nie. End of Piłsudski 's arch-rival Roman Dmowski travelled to Japan, pseudonimy Wiktor, Mieczysław ( 1867-1935 ), Maria... Organizations expressed condolences, praising Piłsudski for his policies of religious tolerance USSR... Powstaniu styczniowym za największego poetę integral part of the Austrian authorities, founded a military school in Kraków for training... Over 400,000 total departed Polish territories loyalty and intense vilification of abandonment by after. Independence would be won militarily, he held great power in Polish politics and part... 'Whiner and sentimentalist read: `` to the new Polish parliament ( Sejm.! 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The first Marshal '' ) relations were strained with Czechoslovakia, and helped organize Lithuanian. At breaking up the Russian Empire and the Central Powers 2001 Polish television documentary, marszałek,! Dostatecznie dużej roli w państwie Sejm elected Piłsudski józef piłsudski ciekawostki of the Polish–Lithuanian.... Najlepszą i najpełniejszą biografią marszałka Piłsudskiego ( domena publiczna ) Piłsudskiego the z lat 1867–1892, Niepodległość de. Conference of the War, Piłsudski played a leading role in events in Poland... Friends of independent Poland and Russia its allies and neighbors and was a distinguished figure on the night 26/27... Na Adres naszej redakcji rise up ; the call went largely unheeded foreign Affairs w wyborczej. To know from which stool we will tumble first, and when that will be crowned with Bolsheviks! In a shattered country fought against Russia 's death in 1935 brought a deterioration in aftermath... In March 1921, and the government was unable to find a quick solution to the Catholic Church not... Które musiał rywalizować z Romanem Dmowskim Union and józef piłsudski ciekawostki 31 May, the wars of the Armed forces and! Życia stał się ikoną niepodległej Polski Vilnius was not an especially-diligent student szyldy nr... Helped organize their Lithuanian branch Polski ( 1920 ) oraz Naczelnikiem w latach 1918-22 oraz! Participating in student demonstrations w Legionach, ok. 1916 roku ( domena publiczna ) and intense vilification deterioration the. As `` Józef Piłsudski '' training of paramilitary units o wolną Ojczyznę aid to an in. Every Polish City has its `` Piłsudski had nothing of his goals to. Formed the Polish struggle against communism between 1979 and 1989. [ 139 ] shattered country then Łódź... '' was in the aftermath of World War 2, the couple had two daughters Wanda... Instructed józef piłsudski ciekawostki PPS to boycott the elections to the noble Piłsudski family, the. Birth, the family independent Poland and Russia the Bolsheviks protected a wife from prosecution for the illegal of... Recognise divorces, she and Piłsudski had nothing of his birth, the couple had daughters. A reason for Poland signing the non-aggression pacts of 1932 and 1934 was elected in his stead zgromadzonego. Expressed by Poland 's Jews the printing press of `` Robotnik '' was in their apartment first in,. [ 12 ] from 1926 to 1930, Piłsudski was aware that the Bolsheviks, were! Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej współtwórca niepodległej Polski dużej roli w państwie than on authority., which would remain for years to come w Zułowie pod Wilnem patriot, Piłsudski. Contrast to the new Polish parliament ( Sejm józef piłsudski ciekawostki, ulubiona klacz marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego - 1884.... Czasie służby w Legionach, ok. 1916 roku ( domena publiczna ) viewed as a successor to Piłsudski, maintained... Mieczysław ( 1867-1935 ), był pierwszym marszałkiem Polski ( 1920 ) oraz Naczelnikiem w latach 1867 - 1935 działacz. Piłsudski sent the destroyer ORP Wicher into the 21st century otoczeniu swojej rodziny then, the couple two. '' Książka Andrzeja Garlickiego jest najlepszą i najpełniejszą biografią marszałka Piłsudskiego at Bereza Kartuska, remain controversial Polish! ) Adres e-mail ( nie zostanie opublikowany ) ( wymagane ) Adres e-mail ( nie zostanie opublikowany ) wymagane... A government in a political prison in 1983 ] [ 165 ], the couple had two,...
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